1800s ushered in a new era for American nationalism. Instead of looking towards
the east in order to define America, the new nation increasingly gazed west.
The push for Americans to expand and protect its borders, ideals, and
culture into the western territories of the continent was culminated in the
term, Manifest Destiny. Coined in 1845, by a news editor named John
O’Sullivan, Manifest Destiny, as he declared, was the divine right for America
“to over spread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development
of our yearly multiplying millions. Americans
now had the words to describe and justify the great westward migrations taking
place during the mid 1800s, which eventually redefined and reshaped America.
overall result of Manifest Destiny was as varied as the lands it consumed. For
America, there was unprecedented growth and prosperity, but for the Native
Americans, there was mass destruction. The realization of Manifest Destiny
allowed for the removal of foreign powers and people from the land, but
eventually it proved to be a principle factor in America’s own civil war.
California History Standard
Know the changing boundaries of the United States and describe the relationships
the country had with its neighbors (current Mexico and Canada) and Europe,
including the influence of the Monroe Doctrine, and how those relationships
influenced the westward expansion and the Mexican-American War.
I. The Foundations of
ideas of providence and predetermination
of Church and State
Americans believed they had a God given right to govern the land
the duty to make it civilized and Christian.
Declaration of Independence, natural rights
virtuous citizen, the independent farmer, the Louisiana
Monroe Doctrine of 1823
Primary Source – The Monroe Doctrine of 1823
New World closed to further European colonization
Marked the beginning of the nation’s foreign policy
Source – Message to Congress-The
Indian Removal Act of 1835-
Anti-Native American sentiments and politics
From the beginning
of the nation’s history, Americans believed in the natural rights of man to
form a civil society. They also believed that their new democratic government
would set an example for the world in order to showcase the democratic way.
America was based on the idea of land ownership and with Jefferson, the concept
and the opportunity of the yeoman farmer was a pinnacle goal for many Americans.
Monroe Doctrine of 1823 was a strong stamp of growing American nationalism. This
precedent of U.S Foreign Policy was originally meant as a philosophical defense
against European powers on the continent, but it was eventually used as a basis
of justification for America’s offensive actions towards those powers in order
remove them and expand the nation’s boundaries. Jackson’s political ideas
and actions concerning the nations of Native Americans, helped initiate their
“removal” as well.
The (white) American truly believed he had dominion over his
surroundings. Justification for Manifest Destiny was realized on a
personal level as well as national. The American way of life was superior to all
others and it must expand.
Act of 1830
for farming needed
ports of the Pacific
The population of
America was growing rapidly, so the economic opportunities for the multitudes
had to grow as well
II. Laying the In-Roads for
The Louisiana Purchase of 1803
Louisiana Purchase/Louis and Clark Expedition Trails
of French power from interior
and Clark Expedition
Louisiana Purchase provided the first stage in America’s westward expansion.
France was removed from the area and America now had access to the western
territories. The expedition of Louis and Clark wetted American’s appetites for
more land and adventure.
The Destiny of Native Americans
--Loss and destruction of natural resources
Americans viewed the Native Americans as a threat to the progression of the American way of life. They
were treated as a lost cause in the eyes of civilized progress.
They were to be removed from American soil. Native Americans were crowded
out, relocated, and finally rounded up to live on Indian reservations, which
were to be their new “homelands”. Manifest Destiny proved to be the
destruction for the Native American way of life, and for the most part their
Source- Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831
The Native American Nations had virtually no rights in America. Using the
Constitution, the courts had subscribed the Indian nations to a status of
dependency and subject to American laws with no avenues of recourse.
Source – John Gast’s painting-
This painting illustrates American’s views about progress. To them it
was one-dimensional, America triumphantly conquering the West.
--President Polk’s desire to gain Puget Sound
--Treaty Line with Britain to divide Oregon on the 49th
--Primary Source: Map showing boundaries
Sig. Set’s the boundaries of the United States and Canada
The Migration to the West
--Oregon Trail, 2000 mile long stream of rivers and natural
Primary Source: Map of the Oregon Trail
Sig. Using visual aid to show the students the actual trail.
Act of Congress states it began in Independence, Missouri and ended in
Oregon City, Oregon.
To the settlers it was a five-month trip from their old home
to their new home.
--1848, Oregon Territory was declared (Oregon, Washington,
and Idaho, part
of western Montana). “Oregon country”
--First Emigrants on the Oregon Trail: “Oregon Fever of 1840s”
trading families from: Missouri, Ohio, Indiana,
Kentucky, and Tennessee
--Conditions and costs for the trip:
The primary path for the new immigrants to reach the Oregon Territories
on the Oregon Trail
Personal hardships and the family unit
Source: Journal Entries
and Death on the Oregon Trail
Mormons in the West
for emigrating to the west
To avoid religious persecution
IV. Origins of Texas
one talks about Manifest Destiny and Americas march west, very few people are
aware of how important what is now the state of Texas played in this eastward
movement. The conflict in Texas between Mexico and U.S. federal troops over a
border dispute resulted in a war. The end result is one of the larger land
transfers in U.S. history. Without this conflict a totally different picture
could have emerged.
Texas was once sovereign territory of the Spanish Empire in accordance
with Treaty of Tordesillas. Spain used the empresario’s
(colonizer) to distribute land grants in Spanish territory.
Moses Austin was the first foreigner to get a land grant in 1819. These
grants gave the holder any where from one to four leagues depending if you were
rich or not. A league is defined as 4428 square acres. Moses Austin was the
father of Stephan Austin one of the defenders of the Alamo.
Shows the Spanish claim to new world territory.
source: (Treaty map of Spanish control in new world)
Mexico’s wins independence from Spain 1821.
This shows how was Texas was once Spanish territory is now a state of Mexico,
sovereign Mexican territory
Primary source(Show map of
Mexico prior to 1836)
Mexico a fledgling nation encouraged immigration in their constitution of
1824. The northern and eastern areas
were the areas that they wanted settled.
Immigration in their out lying provinces helped to settle these less populated
areas with the intent of strengthening Mexico hold on these areas.
Primary source (1824 Mexican Constitution, show example of constitution).
Mexico continues the policy
of empresario land grants, these were given to immigrants as long as they
followed certain rules.
Settlers had to convert to cat holism and
could not bring slaves into Mexican territory. These people were also called
Stephan Austin was one of the first to get an empresario contract land
grant from Mexico.
Originally these grants were given to “men of good moral character”
who had to swear loyalty to federal and state governments of Mexico for the
purpose of curtailing the aggressive countrymen of the north.
Each family would receive one league of pasture land for a sum of thirty
Because Stephan Austin was an empresario he was to receive fifteen sitos
(66,420 acres for grazing) and two labors (345 acres for farming) for very two
hundred families he brought to Texas up to six hundred. Austin brought 1100
families to Texas making him a very rich man.
shows the legal right of Americans to settle in the Province of Texas.
Between 1821 and 1836 50,000 settlers were brought into Texas.
In 1825 The Fredonian Rebellion was a
bid by two brothers to establish their claim of property rights that
angered the Mexican authorities. The brothers took up arms against the
authorities in a premature bid for independence against the advice of Stephan
Austin. This rebellion was quickly quelled by the Mexicans and the
Edwards land grant was rescinded and reissued to a loyal empresario.
Many families continued to come to Texas for the cheap land for you could
get one league of land for what you would have to pay for ninety acres in the
United States of America.
In 1832 The Battle of
Velasco was fought and the first casualties were suffered by Texans which
would develop into the Texas Revolution. Several conventions take place
displaying general unrest with Mexican rule.
1835 Stephan Austin announces that war with Mexico is necessary to win
1836 From March to May four intense battles are fought for Texas
independence, with the Battle for the Alamo being the most famous. In the fourth
and final battle at San Jacinto, Sam Houston defeated 1600 of Santa Anna’s
troops with 800 men.
In 1836 a Provisional Government was set up and it secured all land
granted and ceased to recognize any land grants issued after
Nov 13, 1835. Is thought that land speculation was the cause of the
war.(Insert map of Texas)
shows the territory that The Republic of Texas claimed.
Primary Source Map of claimed territory of Texas.
1836 Annexation is proposed to the United States by the Republic of
Texas, but is rejected by President Van Buren for the stated reasons of possible
war with Mexico, but the underlying reasons are said to be the slavery issue.
The annexation offer is withdrawn by Texas. Free vs. Slave state is big issue
In 1842 Twice Mexico
attempts to regain the renegade state of Texas but is unsuccessful
holding the captured town San Antonio.
proposes a treaty of annexation which is rejected by Congress.
1845 a popularly elected Constitutional Convention meets in Texas to
consider annexation by the United States of America or a peace proposal from
Mexico as long as it remains a independent country. Annexation wins the vote
1845 Polk is elected United States President and a Joint resolution is
passed annexing Texas as part of the United States. Mexico severs diplomatic
relations with the United States. Texas is accepted for statehood and is given
the right to divide into four convenient sized
state at later time if it so desires.
This shows that the popular vote in Texas favored annexation but it took a joint
resolution by a majority vote for the US to get what it wanted.
Primary source (insert annexation vote here)
Reasons for wanting Mexican territory
US experiencing high birth rate,
agriculture provided primary economic structure; large families were considered
Expansion offered new opportunities
for new commerce and individual self-advancement
Land ownership was associated with
wealth, self-sufficiency, and political power
Maritime merchants saw an
opportunity to expand and promote new commerce by building West Coast ports
leading to trade with countries in the Pacific (China in particular).
Students understand the reasons the United States wanted California
Polk’s declaration of war with Mexico (May 13,1846)
Polk sends Slidell to Mexico City
Terms Mexico and United States are
trying to agree upon.
Students understand when
in history US and Mexico began their confrontations.
Mexico’s stability as an independent country
Mexico achieved independence from
Spain in 1821
The war with Spain caused several
economic burdens and recovery was difficult.
Rule was placed under emperor but
in 1824 it was overthrown and a constitutional republic was born.
Mexico won vast northern
territories with its independence from Spain.
These areas were under populated; Mexico also had to worry about colonizing the territories and guarding its borders
Sig. Students are able to become aware of the economic, political and social position Mexico was in at this time.
Protecting and Colonizing Mexico’s northern territories
Proved to be nearly impossible for
the staggering country
Due to Mexico’s economic system,
there were fewer opportunities for self-advancement and people were unwilling to
Constant warfare with Native
Americans discouraged people from settling into the areas.
Points out the
weaknesses of Mexico at this time.
America taking over
Polk orders troops to southern
California begins being taken over
beginning with Sonoma in 1846 and ending with U.S. capturing city in 1847
To understand the
concept of the process that the United States went through to take over Mexican
Source: Map of the disputed
territory in Mexico
Students have a visual
aid of disputed territory and are able to recognize the territory with
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Discussions of peace treaty began
February 2, 1848 Treaty signed in
Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city north of the capital.
Provisions called for 55% of its
territory (present day Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas and parts of
Colorado, Nevada and Utah)
The United States was going to
compensate Mexico with fifteen million dollars in compensation for war-related
damage to Mexican property.
Following ratification of the U.S.
treaty, U.S. troops left Mexico City
Students recognize the
manner in which peace was brought and the reason the war came to an end.
Some other matters stipulated in the treaty
Protection for the civil rights of
Mexican nationals living within the new border
US promises to police its side of
The guarantee of Mexican land
grants was deleted from the treaty
Students are aware of
some entities that were specified in the treaty.
Source: Show the actual treaty of
Students are able to see
the actual treaty, which helps them, put some realization to the document.
Results of the Mexican-American War
13, 000 Americans killed
Northern Mexico and Texas added to
the United States virtually half of Mexico’s territory.
In Congress the Wilmot Proviso was
introduced beginning in 1846. Stated
that slavery should not be allowed in any territory acquired from Mexico.
While it never passed, it provided a well-defined proposal that allowed
free-soil forces to attract thousands of followers
To recognize the
outcomes of the Mexican-American war.
Now that California has become a free slave state, this affects the
between the slave states and free-slave states, which only adds more tension
between the two and
eventually leads to the Civil War. The Acquisition of California
should be considered
the pentacle of Manifest Destiny.
Source: Speech of Hon. W.A. Sackett,
of New York; Shall Slavery be Extended
Students identify with the
actual document and understand how California
affected the balance
of powers between slave and non-slave states.