World War I Foreign and Domestic Policy


McDougall, “Woodrow Wilson: Egocentric Crusader”

Why are Wilson’s background and beliefs important to understanding his foreign policy?

How did Wilson feel about how material goals and desires should affect a nation’s foreign policy?

How does McDougall characterize Wilson’s neutrality efforts and how was this different from other reasons to maintain neutrality?

Why did some American leaders opposed Article Ten of the League of Nations Covenant?
Why is Wilson foreign policy so  significant?              


Pastor, Woodrow Wilson: Father of the Future”

How does Pastor compare 19th century foreign policy to 20th century?

What pattern of foreign policy does Pastor see or emphasize that began with Teddy Roosevelt and Wilson?

According to Pastor, why did Wilson eventually wish to enter WWI?
What did Wilson mean that a balance of power should be replaced with a community of power?

Why was Wilson’s plan or ideas so revolutionary or radical?

What were the main battle lines in the Senate during the debate over the League Covenant?
How does Pastor explain the continuity  and the changes in US foreign policy in the 20th century?


Putman, “The Demise of Seattle’s Progressive Spirit”

What explains the continuing strength of middle class women and organized labor alliance post 1911?
What factors or reasons explain the weakening of the middle class women’s alliance with organized labor by mid 1910s?

Why did the IWW thrive in Washington?

What evidence would you cite to demonstrate the growing class conflict that plagued Seattle on the eve of WWI?

Why and how did WWI worsen class relations in Seattle?  What examples of this would you cite?


Abrams v. US

Your thoughts about this case and decision?

How should we determine limits of free speech in time of war?

What was Abrams and colleagues charged with?

What is the significance of the timing of this case in 1919? 

What were the charges against Abrams?

What did Justice Clarke say about the character of the accused and why is this important?

What did defense claim about the Espionage Act?

What did the Court focus on in this decision?  Why the emphasis on the leaflets?

How did Clarke draw his conclusions regarding the leaflets?  What did he have to show or prove in his mind?

Must judge the likely effects not just intended effect.


Holmes Dissent:

What is Holmes’ conclusion about the documents or circulars?

How does Holmes challenge the majority opinion especially regarding intent?
How does he see issue of free speech in peace v. in time of war?

Other complaints or criticisms he had?

What is his point about free trade in ideas?


The League of Nations Debated

What rhetoric or language does Lodge employ to defend his position?

What will happen in his mind if the US joins the League?

What, according to Borah, will the US lose by joining the L of N?

What are his feelings about Europe?

What does this debate tell us about how American leaders formulate American foreign policy?