CA Standard 11.4.4: Explain Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick diplomacy, William Taft's Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson's Moral Diplomacy, drawing on relevant speeches.

¨CA Standard 11.4.5: Analyze the political, economic, and social ramifications of World War I on the home front.

Ice Breaker Activity:

¨WWI Pursuit
¡Causes Discussions
¡Makes students have questions
¡Gives Students a general understanding of what they should know

American Ideologies

Monroe Doctrine
¨Imperialistic colonies in the Western Hemisphere are permitted but no new ones are to be established
Big Stick Diplomacy
¨Roosevelt Corollary
¡“Speak softly but carry a big stick”
¡No authorities have the right to interfere in the western hemisphere
Dollar Diplomacy
¨Create stability abroad For American commercial interest
Moral Diplomacy
¨Condemn imperialism, spread democracy and promote peace
Significance: These concepts were driving forces in the US neutrality at the start of WWI and also the reason for the United states entering the war.  They have an effect on modern day policies.

Key Concepts:


•Devotion to ones own nation

Significance: People thought that their country was the best.  It gave people a sense of egocentrism



•Spreading a nations rule

Significance: Growing empires caused friction and competition between many States

¨Entangling Alliances

•The growing nations caused countries to make treaties and alliances with one another

Significance: As nations grew so did their armies and political power and people sought to align themselves with other nations causing a web of alliances and creating the perfect storm for world war


Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand:

¨Heir to Austria-Hungary throne
¨Killed by Serbia
Significance: The starting point of WWI, as Austria declared war on Serbia others fell in- line bound by their treaties and agreements



¨Austria declares war on Serbia
¨Russia rises to defend Serbia
¨Germany rises to defend Austria-Hungary from Russia
¨France joins war because of treaties with Russia
¨Britain allied with France enters war
¨Japan honors agreement with Britain and enters War
¨Italy joined war when Germany and Austria- Hungary went on the defense
¨America took a policy of neutrality
Significance: The entanglement of alliances creates the perfect storm for world war.   

Reasons for American Internvention:

¨German Unrestricted Warfare

¡Blocks US commercial Shipping

úSignificance: Blocks united states Dollar Diplomacy

¡Sinking of the RMS Lusitania

úSignificance: Shaped American opinion on the war.  Americans were outraged that they were attacking neutral passenger ships.

¨Zimmermann telegram from Germany to Mexico

¡Urged them to wage war against US for German support.

úSignificance:  They interfered with western policies and that defies the Monroe doctrine and Big Stick Diplomacy.

The Sides

The Allied Powers

¨United Kingdom
¨Italy (1915-18)
¨United States (1917-18)
¨Romania (1916-18)
¨Greece (1916-18)

The Central Powers

¨German Empire
¨Ottoman Empire
¨Bulgaria (1915-18)
Significance: Students must know the sides to understand reasons for war and to compare them to that of World War II


Campaigns and Fronts:

¨Belgium and France
¨Asia and the Pacific
¨War in the Balkans
¨Ottoman Empire
Significance: World War I was the first war to truly have fronts on vast parts of the World

US Participation:

¨The British and French wanted U.S. units used to reinforce their troops
¨General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Force (AEF) commander, refused to break up U.S. units to be used as reinforcements
¡AEF Doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults,
úWere discarded by Brattain and France because of the large loss of life
Significance: U.S. was entering the war on their own time and terms and emerging as a superpower making decisions for themselves, and not based on Brattain or France.


¨The British and French wanted U.S. units used to reinforce their troops
¨General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Force (AEF) commander, refused to break up U.S. units to be used as reinforcements
¡AEF Doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults,
úWere discarded by Brattain and France because of the large loss of life
Significance: U.S. was entering the war on their own time and terms and emerging as a superpower making decisions for themselves, and not based on Brattain or France.

Trench Warfare:

¨Men were in dark and wet trenches with poor utilities
¨Caused thousands of casualties for very little progress.
Significance: Crammed trenches lead to health problems and many not battle related casualties

Key Concept of Trench Warfare:

¨Trench Foot and other health issues
¨No – Mans Land
¨Dug Outs
¨Gas/ Gas Masks
Significance: These terms help students to identify how bad conditions were for soldiers and understand how the war got nicknames such as ‘The War to End All Wars’ or the ‘Great War’


: Battles:

The Battle of Verdun

¨German attack of Verdun France

Significance: Verdun is still considered by many
Military historians as the 'greatest' and most
demanding battle in history. In the end, the
front lines were nearly the same as when the
battles started while over 300,000 French and
Germans were killed and over 750,000 were wounded
The Battle of Somme

¨A Franco-British offensive was planned here in 1916 to relieve pressure on the French at Verdun.

Significance: It was the single worst day in deaths
and casualties in British military history. This
battle did nothing for changing the front lines
The Third Battle of Yreps

¨Series of mines dug under the German lines disrupting German defenses.

Significance: this three-month battle, men,
animals and equipment were swallowed up in
mud that was often like quicksand


¨Using a world map, pinpoint with the students the locations of the three battles, and using a marker, chart the routes of each one. (If possible, project The Great War's animated maps to accompany this activity.)
¨Divide students into small groups, each one representing one of the battles (two or more groups may have the same assignment, depending on the number of students in the class). Direct students to The Great War site to begin their research on the battles (to be supplemented by the additional web resources, noted below.)
¨Have each team conduct further research into one of the battles (depending on the number of students, groups may share battles.) Key aspects to note:
¡where the battle occurred, what led to its occurrence, battle conditions, such as the weather. who was involved, how many casualties, types of weapons used,
¡the end result of the war (who "won" the battle and its effect on everything around it, including civilians).
¨Instruct students to assume the roles of journalists to write individual news accounts of one of the battles (all three should be equally represented). Students can write a day-to-day account of life on the battlefield, an article reflecting soldiers feelings about the war, etc. Students can create a newspaper in which to run these stories, maybe a special WWI edition.


Poetry by Alfred Joyce Kilmer

Trees (1913)

I think that I shall never see
A poem lovely as a tree.
A tree whose hungry mouth is prest
Against the earth's sweet flowing
A tree that looks at God all day,
And lifts her leafy arms to pray;
A tree that may in Summer wear
A nest of robins in her hair;
Upon whose bosom snow has lain;
Who intimately lives with rain.
Poems are made by fools like me,
But only God can make a tree.

Prayer of a Soldier in France (1918)

My shoulders ache beneath my pack
(Lie easier, Cross, upon His back).
I march with feet that burn and smart
(Tread, Holy Feet, upon my heart).
Men shout at me who may not speak
(They scourged Thy back and smote
Thy cheek). I may not lift a hand to
My eyes of salty drops that sear.
(Then shall my fickle soul forget
Thy Agony of Bloody Sweat?)
My rifle hand is stiff and numb
(From Thy pierced palm red rivers
Lord, Thou didst suffer more for me
Than all the hosts of land and sea.
So let me render back again
This millionth of Thy gift. Amen.

Social Impact

Woman Suffrage

¨Born out of abolitionist movement
¨Had been fighting for over 60 years
¨Women picketed outside the White House
¨Picketing war-time president resulted in outrage, assault, and arrests of picketers

Significance: Women refused to accept the President supporting freedom and democracy abroad while denying it at home


¨Harsh treatment and plight of hyphenated-Americans
¨German-Americans and Irish Americans
¨Torn between which side to support
Significance: America is an immigrant country.  People from diverse backgrounds consider themselves Americans and they shouldn’t be treated differently during war-time.

Economic Impact

¨Women in factories
¨Home harvests
¨War bonds
Significance: Although the United States benefitted from ongoing trade relations, people still helped out the war effort on personal levels.

Political Impact:

¨People unhappy to be in the war
¡Wanted to maintain isolationism/non-intercourse policies
¨Anti-Immigration literacy test
¨Women being wrongfully imprisoned and abused forces the politicians to take note
Significance: The United States experienced an enormous amount of political change because of WWI.

The End of WWI

¨The War was ended by an armistice
Significance: It was an agreement to cease fire which means that Germany did not actually loose the war
¨Death Toll
¡Allies: 5.5 million
¡Central: 4.4 million
Significance: It was a huge loss of property and life for a war where that most people did not know what they were fighting for.  Nothing was really accomplished

Woodrow Wilson and the Fourteen Points

¨The 14 points became the basis for German surrender
¨It’s goal was to end future wars
¡Open Seas (Britain opposed)
¡“ Self Determination”
¡Peace without victory
¡League of Nations
Significance: Many compromises had to be made to satisfy Europe.  The league of nations was a point of contention especially because the US never ratified the Treaty of Versailles.


Treaty of Versailles

¨Made without German input
¨Terms of the Treaty:

Germany solely responsible for the war

Lost property

Had to pay reparations

Had to demilitarize

Significance: This put Germany in a debt that they could never pay.  They fell into a recession. Germany felt they were taking too much blame.  The frustrations lead to the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party.


¨In groups of 4, each one representing a particular viewpoint of the countries involved in the treaty (France, Italy, USA, and Great Britain) Discuss and Debate…
¡Should Germany be guilty?
¡Should Germany’s army be limited? How?
¡How much should Germany pay?
¡Should the League of Nations be formed? Why? Who should be allowed in?

The First Red Scare

¨Bolsheviks take over Russia
¨May 1, 1919: several bombs sent to Americans
Significance: Made Americans face their fears of radicals taking over
¨Sacco and Vanzetti
¡2 Italian immigrant workers
¡Unfair Trial
úFound guilty on faulty evidence
Significance: Showed that public was against anything not American. Anything Un-American was bad.